The Database of Island Invasive Species Eradications attempts to compile all historical and current invasive vertebrate eradication projects on islands. The vast majority of the dataset is focused on invasive mammals. Data gathered from each project includes island location and characteristics, details about the eradication including focal species, methods and outcome, plus links and or contact details for learning more about the project. Parameter descriptions are described here
Since 2014 we assessed all eradication attempts for data quality based on definitions in Table 1. We expect any data summary or analysis to be restricted to only good or satisfactory data quality. We retain events of poor quality in the online database in the hope others can help us further qualify or remove these events. To update an eradication record, please contact us: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Eradication start and end date are reported for years only and represent years of operational activities on the ground where the eradication end date is the year that the eradication operations ceased. This typically coincided with the end of confirmation of eradication for hunting / trapping for ungulates and predators, or the end of toxicant application (or other methods) for rodent projects. Note that confirmation of eradications can occur some years after the end of operations, particularly for rodents which most often occurs two years after the eradication operation has ended.
We document the status of each eradication activity, based on definitions in Table 2. An eradication operation that successfully removed the invasive population is considered a successful eradication. Because reinvasions can follow a successful eradication, for the purposes of this online database, we added the option to view successful eradications within the context of a reinvasion status (See Table 2). We consider an eradication failure to be an operational failure, i.e. the project did not successfully remove the targeted invasive species from the island. This is different from a reinvasion event, which is only considered when the invasive species has re-established on the island, following a successful eradication. While reinvasions can be misdiagnosed as failures and vice versa, we erred on the side of caution and when it was unclear, defaulted to the operation as being failed. In these cases, data quality was considered poor. Note, the database also includes trial or research eradications that were used to inform larger operations.
Island eradication type (Table 3) refers to whether the operation required treatment of the entire island (whole island), or only part of the island (restricted range) to remove the invasive population from the island. Note, incursion responses are also included in the dataset, representing operations to remove a population prior to their establishment across the entire island.
Data on the primary and secondary method of the eradication are collected, including disease, hunting, trapping, toxicant, other, unknown, none (secondary method only). Where toxicant was used, the baiting method was noted as either aerial broadcast, bait station, hand broadcast, bait piles, unknown, other, or not applicable. The toxicant compound was identified where applicable.
References that cite part or all of these eradication events are provided, including a link if this is online.
References that cite part or all of these eradication events are provided. Contact details and organization of expert practitioners working on eradication projects are provided where they have been made available. Note some contact details have been withheld at the request of practitioners. Should you not see any contact details please contact email@example.com and we are happy to share the knowledge we do have.Table 1. Data Quality Definitions
|Good||We can verify the attempt; we have a copy of the primary reference that details the effort|
|Satisfactory||An expert practitioner has verified the event and/or we have limited information about an eradication, but what we do have came from a verifiable source (e.g. email from a reputable practitioner or cited in a review paper), and we can identify all of the following attributes: the island, end year (if applicable), invasive species type, eradication status, and primary eradication method.|
|Poor||We cannot verify the attempt (conflicting information or unverifiable resource) and/or we lack evidence for at least one of the following parameters: island, end year (if applicable), invasive animal type, eradication status, or primary eradication method.|
|Unknown||Data quality has not been assessed yet|
|Successful||The operation to eradicate the invasive was successful and confirmed (i.e. the invasive species is no longer present on the island and to the best of our knowledge at the time of reporting, the invasive species has not reinvaded).|
|Successful (reinvaded)||Operation was successful, but invasive subsequently reinvaded island|
|Failed||The eradication operation was completed (there is an end date) yet it failed to remove the entire invasive population. Operational failure (as opposed to reinvasion). For rodent eradications, if there was uncertainty about why the invasive population remained (failure versus reinvasion), we assumed operational failure and classified data quality as poor.|
|To be confirmed||Eradication operation is complete, but the operation has yet to be "confirmed" as successful or failed. This stage is typical for rodent eradication operations, with confirmation monitoring occurring 1 - 2 years after the eradication operation has ended.|
|In progress||Eradication currently in progress at time of reporting.|
|Planned||Eradication operation is being planned at time of reporting. Operation end year will likely be unknown.|
|Incomplete||Eradication operation was started, but not followed through to completion.|
|Trial or research only||Eradication operation was undertaken for trial or research purposes only with goal of gathering information, not to eradicate invasive species.|
|Unknown pre-status||Eradication operation was undertaken but status of invasive was unclear beforehand. Typically undertaken for precautionary measures for rodent eradications.|
|Island Eradication Type||Definition|
|Whole island||The whole island was treated to achieve eradication of the invasive species.|
|Restricted range||The invasive only occurred on part of the island, and thus only part of the island was treated to achieve a whole island eradication.|
|Incursion response||A response to an invasion in progress. Note: if an invasion results in a species recolonizing an island this requires a whole island eradication.|
|Unknown||Eradication type unknown. Also use where the cause of the extirpation of the invasive species is unknown.|
|Island Conservation||University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC)||Coastal Conservation Action Lab, UCSC|
|Center for Integrated Spatial Research (CISR), UCSC||The University of Auckland, New Zealand||Landcare Research (Manaaki Whenua), New Zealand|
|International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)||Species Survival Commission (SSC), IUCN||Invasive Species Specialist Group, IUCN SSC|